Thursday, October 06, 2005

Fundamental Right and Duties

Q1: Write the significance of fundamental rights and duties?
i) Fundamental right are basic or fundamental rights. every human being has the right to enjoy these rights.
ii) These rights are guaranteed in the constitution. every citizen in a democratic country needs these right in order to grow as a balanced and responsible citizen.
iii) A citizen has the right to go to the court of law if he/she is denied these rights.

Q2: Explain "Right To Equality".
Ans: Right to equality (article 14 - 18) contains the following provisions:
i) EQUAL PROTECTION UNDER THE LAW- any citizen of India committing crime will be punished according to the law and no one can be discriminated on the basis of caste, race, language, sex or religion.
ii) The state cannot discriminate any one in matters of employment.
iii) Every citizen will be provided equal opportunities and use public facilities like means of transport, parks or places of entertainment.
iv) This right abolishes untouchability.
v) The constitution has abolished titles except military and academic ones.

Q3: "Right to freedom is a cluster of freedoms". Elaborate.
Right to freedom is actually a cluster of the following six freedoms:
i) Right to speech and expression.
ii) Right to assemble peacefully and without arms.
iii) Right to form associations or unions.
iv) The right to move freely throughout the territory of India.
v) The right to reside in and settle in any part of the territory of India.
vi) The right to practice any profession or to carry on any occupation, trade or business.

Q4: What is meant by preventive detention. Explain.
i) Preventive detention means that if the government feels that a person being at liberty is a threat to the law and order or to the unity and integrity of the nation, it can detain that person to prevent him/her from possible harm.
ii) The government can extend the preventive detention for 3 months.
iii) After 3 months such a case is brought before an advisory board for review.

Q5: Mention any two exceptions under right to equality. Do you think they violate the principle of equality?
The right to equality contains some exceptional provisions which are :
i) Reserve posts are provided for schedule castes, schedule tribes and other backward classes.
ii) Special provisions are provided for women and children special provisions under the right to equality are meant to remove the inequalities in the society. These provisions are aimed at bringing the under privileged population at par with the rest of the society. They don't violate or contradict the right to equality.

Q6: Explain right against exploitation. What is the objective behind this right?
i) The right against exploitation abolishes forced or bonded labor. As per constitution no one can be forced to do work without giving him/her salary.
ii) Constitution also abolishes child labor. It forbids the employment of children below 14 years in dangerous jobs like in factories and mines.

Q7: Explain the right to freedom of religion.
i) Right to freedom of religion provides religious freedom to all citizens of India. Citizens are free to practice their respective religions.
ii) All religions are equal before the state and no religion will be given preference over the other.
iii) No state run institution can give religious education.
iv) Religious communities can set up charitable institution of their own.

Q8: Explain cultural and educational rights.
i) Any community, which has language and a script of its own, has the right to conserve and develop them. No citizen can be discriminated against for admission in state run or state aided institution because of religion or language.
ii) All minorities, religious or linguistic, can set up their own educational institutions. In doing so they preserve and develop their culture.

Q9:"Right to constitutional rights is the back bone of our fundamental rights." Justify.
"Right to constitutional remedies is a very special right." Comment,
i) Right to constitutional remedies is a very special right, which protects all other fundamental rights granted by the constitution to all the citizens.
ii) The judiciary acts as a guard against violation of the fundamental rights by the government. Every citizen has the right to go tot the court if his/her rights are taken away or violated.
iii) During emergency this right is suspended by the government

This article is still evolving...

Monday, October 03, 2005

The World From 1919 To The Second World War

Q1. What lead to fascism and Nazism in Italy and Germany respectively?
i)The condition of the workers was miserable as the government had very little concern about them.
ii)Italy had many imperialistic ambitions and entered the first world war which had great reverses in Italy as 700,000 soldiers died.
iii)The Italian governed was mainly dominated be the capitalists and the landlords.
iv)The great economic crisis in 1929 in USA also gave an opportunity to the Nazis and the facist to get a good foundation in these countries.

Q2. What are the main features of Nazism and Facism?

i)They were anti-democratic people and believed in dictatorship.
ii)They glorified force and brutality, believed in the rule of a great ruler and ridiculed the ideas of internationalsim, peace and democracy.
iii)Hitler's Nazism was more sinister than the facism in Italy.
iv)Hitler also had a hatered for the German jews as they were blamed for the defeat og Germany in the first world war and were also responsible for all the ills in Germany.
v)Both glorified extreme and violent nationalism and believed in war as well as expansion.
vii)These dredful ideas found favour with the army, the industrialists, the capitalists and the anti-republicans.
viii)They were also against democracy ansd communism

Q3 : Which two countries did Fascism and Nazism not affect?
The two countries that were not affected by Fascism and Nazism were:
i) England
ii) France
This was because the Labor Party was very strong and left its influence even though it was only is power for 2years.

Q4 : What were the causes that led to the great economic crisis in 1929?
i)There was over production in the industries due to the capitalist system of the economy.
ii)The capitalists believed that more and production led to more and more profits.
iii)But nobody could buy there goods as all the workers were given very less wages.
iv)Due to very less sale in the industries, the capitalists had to close them down which led to mass-unemployment of workers.
v)Most of the European countries were dependent on The United States of America after the war.
vi)These countries had also taken many loans form USA to buy arms and ammunitions .
vii)The European countries had limited there imports as they were already in debt and had to repay many loans.
viii)As the countries had limited there imports there were lesser markets for the goods made in USA.
ix)The banks in USA also suffered as they could not get back the loans that they had given.
x)Thus, the crisis that started in USA spread to the whole of Europe.

Q5 : What weere the socio-economic consequences of th egreat economic crisis in USA and Europe?
Ans:The great economic crisis had devastating affects on the whole world like :
i) The stock market in Nwe York crashed
ii)This caused so much of panic that over 16 million shares were sold in just one day.
iii)Many shares became absolutely worthless and in 4 months 9,000 banks closed down and inturn millions of peoples lost there life savings.
iv)Manufacturers were not able to get there capitals and the people did not have any money to but the goods.
Q6 : What were the political consequences of the economic crisis?
i) The deppression period begam to spread in Euorope in 1931.
ii)The colonies of the colonies of these countries were alos affeceted.
iii)The deppresion that continued form 1929 to 1933 caused loos of production, poverty and starvation.

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